Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Explained: Levels, Sample Outcomes and Activities

The revised Bloom’s taxonomy is can help you design better courses, write clearer outcomes and keep your learners engaged and motivated. Learn how!
Revised Blooms Taxonomy - levels, sample outcomes and activities

Bloom’s Taxonomy is an educational framework classifying different cognitive skills and knowledge levels. It is a hierarchical model where higher levels build upon lower ones. Setting clear learning objectives, designing effective learning materials, fostering critical thinking, and assessing learning more effectively are some benefits of using this approach.

My previous post gave an overview of the original and revised Bloom’s taxonomy. In this post, I will focus on the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and have a closer look at the levels – I will give examples of activities, sample questions and cognitive processes associated with each group. 

The revised taxonomy was published in 2001 by researchers who used the original taxonomy as a foundation. They incorporated new studies and a contemporary understanding of learning processes to propose a new approach. You can read more about it in the book “A Taxonomy For Learning, Teaching and Assessing“.

Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels

Bloom’s levels are often represented as a pyramid to indicate the progression of cognitive complexity and the hierarchical nature of learning. The pyramid suggests that each level builds upon the previous one, with the lower levels setting up the foundation for higher-level thinking. There are six sequential levels. The revised version uses action verbs as level labels. This approach helps to describe measurable and observable actions – action verbs more clearly and concisely express the intended learning outcomes and the type of skills and competencies learners should show.

Let’s take a look at the different levels and what each one entails. Select an eye icon next to the level’s name to read more about each level.

The pyramid representing the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy levels from 2001

Remembering is the most basic level. The emphasis at this level lies in identifying or recalling facts from long‐term memory. It involves having the ability to retrieve or recall facts, concepts, or procedures. Activities at this level include listing, naming, defining, identifying, and memorising.

Understanding goes beyond mere recall and involves comprehending concepts and ideas. Learners create meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages. Activities at this level can involve explaining ideas or concepts in one's own words, summarising information, interpreting data, and inferring meaning. 

Applying focuses on using acquired knowledge and skills in new situations or contexts. It entails applying learned information to solve problems, complete tasks, or make decisions. Activities here may involve using formulas or procedures, solving problems, performing experiments, and applying principles to real-life situations.

Analysing requires breaking down complex information into its constituent parts and understanding their relationships. Examining information, identifying patterns or structures, and drawing conclusions based on evidence play a vital role at this level. Tasks that may fall under this level include analysing data, categorising information, identifying cause and effect, and making connections between ideas.

Evaluating is about making judgments or conducting assessments based on criteria or standards. It requires the ability to make deductive judgments following the evaluation of the quality, value or effectiveness of something. Tasks under this category entail critiquing, judging, appraising, ranking, and defending a position.

Creating is the highest level in the revised Bloom's Taxonomy. It involves generating original ideas, products, or solutions by combining or reorganising existing knowledge and skills. Learners combine various elements of their learning processes and assemble them to form a coherent, functional whole. Creating requires thinking creatively, inventing, and designing to produce something new. Tasks at this level may involve designing, developing, composing, building or hypothesising.

 

Using Bloom’s Taxonomy 

This taxonomy might seem difficult initially, but it should be more straightforward to implement after seeing some examples.

Writing clear learning objectives

Remember that the main goal here is to communicate learning objectives clearly. It is important to use measurable verbs that will lead to measurable results. Your objectives should also be learner-centred.

Example 1:

Original Objective: Understand the Industrial Revolution.

Do you think that the student will know exactly what to do? Is the learning objective specific enough? Understanding is challenging to be measured and assessed. It needs to be more specific. How about including more precise outcomes – for instance:

Improved Objective: Identify the main social, political, and economic factors that led to the Industrial Revolution or: Name the main social and political factors that led to Industrial Revolution and describe its social impact. 

Here we have more specific and measurable objectives. It should be very clear to the student what needs to be done.

Here is another example:

Example 2

Original Objective: Familiarise yourself with social media campaigns.

Again familiarise is not a measurable verb. Can we be more specific? What exactly do we want learners to achieve? What do you want them to be familiar with? How about re-writing this objective as follows:

Improved Objective: Create a social media campaign on Facebook to increase awareness of the risks associated with consuming fast food. or: Name free social media platforms available for solo entrepreneurs and explore their suitability for retail, B2B services and DIY niche. 

Writing objectives at the appropriate cognitive level

The taxonomy can help you to address the relevant level – make sure to write the goals that match learners’ advancement and needs. This way, you can feed learners more knowledge and keep them interested and motivated. Below  are some examples of dummy social media course objectives for different cognitive levels – select down-pointing arrow to access examples. 

  • Based on your experience with social media platforms, make a product prototype for the perfect tool.
  • Review the three discussed approaches to conducting social media marketing and recommend the most appropriate strategy for artists and creative workers.
  • Analyse the proposed social media campaign plan and identify possible implementation issues.
  • Review the Campaign results and identify the list of possible improvements/reasons for unnecessary budget spent.
  • Write a one-page social media campaign plan (the roadmap) for the life coach starting their own business, recommending the right tools.
  • Develop and implement a long-term social media campaign for company x, ensuring the sales funnel application.
  • Name the Social Media platforms most suitable for B2B marketing.
  • Name the stages of creating an online product sales funnel.
  • Name free social media platforms available for solo entrepreneurs.
  • Define what a sales funnel is.

Blooms Taxonomy Sample Questions and Activities

I have created a free cheat sheet that outlines each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy and lists sample questions and cognitive activities.  Hopefully, this aid will support you in improving your course design. It should help you explain learning expectations more clearly and write more specific learning outcomes for a lesson, topic, or course. You can preview it below.  Subscribe to my newsletter to receive the full-res PDF version! 

I hope you will find this post helpful on your design journey. While I don’t always strictly follow it, I tend to keep it in mind to set clear learning objectives and design better learning programmes that keep learners interested, motivated and foster critical thinking. 

References

  1. Wikimedia Foundation. (2023, July 10). Bloom’s taxonomy. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom’s_taxonomy

  2. Krahtwohl, L. W., & Anderson, D. R. (2013). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. Pearson Higher Education.

  3. Bloom’s taxonomy of measurable verbs – utica college. (n.d.). https://www.utica.edu/academic/Assessment/new/Blooms Taxonomy – Best.pdf

  4. Shabatura, J. (2022, July 26). Using Bloom’s taxonomy to write effective learning outcomes. Teaching Innovation and Pedagogical Support. https://tips.uark.edu/using-blooms-taxonomy/

  5. Shabatura, J. (2022a, July 26). Learning outcomes: Examples and before & after. Teaching Innovation and Pedagogical Support. https://tips.uark.edu/learning-objectives-before-and-after-examples/

  6. Shabatura , J. (2014, September 18). Bloom’s taxonomy verb chart. Teaching Innovation and Pedagogical Support. https://tips.uark.edu/blooms-taxonomy-verb-chart/

  7. Andreev, I. (2023, May 17). Bloom’s taxonomy: Revised levels, verbs for objectives [2023]. Valamis. https://www.valamis.com/hub/blooms-taxonomy

  8. Blooms taxonomy :: Resource for educators. Blooms Taxonomy :: Resource for Educators. (n.d.). https://bloomstaxonomy.net/

  9. Wikimedia Foundation. (2023a, March 6). Benjamin Bloom. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Bloom

  10. Persaud, C. (2021, February 25). Ultimate Guide to implementing bloom’s taxonomy in your course. Top Hat. https://tophat.com/blog/blooms-taxonomy/

Note, that this post provides general information about Revised Blooms Taxonomy.

It is important always to consider the specific context and requirements of your learning projects. If you have any questions or would like to delve deeper into the topic, please email me or book a free online consultation via my contact page.

More about Bloom's Taxonomy:

Action Verbs: Get the cheat sheet to write better learning outcomes

Action Verbs: Get the cheat sheet to write better learning outcomes

Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Explained: Levels, Sample Outcomes and Activities

Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Explained: Levels, Sample Outcomes and Activities

Blooms Taxonomy: How Can It Help You Design Better Online Courses?

Blooms Taxonomy: How Can It Help You Design Better Online Courses?

How to Write Learning Objectives for Online Courses

How to Write Learning Objectives for Online Courses
planning - Design - developing

Make sure to check out my other posts related to planning online courses, designing and developing learning content and delivering training. I share strategies and tools that you can use and many practical tips. 

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